Speech Recognition Is Not Solved
Ever since Deep Learning hit the scene in speech recognition, word error rates have fallen dramatically. But despite articles you may have read, we still don’t have human-level speech recognition. Speech recognizers have many failure modes. Acknowledging these and taking steps towards solving them is critical to progress. It’s the only way to go from ASR which works for some people, most of the time to ASR which works for all people, all of the time.
Saying we’ve achieved human-level in conversational speech recognition based just on Switchboard results is like saying an autonomous car drives as well as a human after testing it in one town on a sunny day without traffic. The recent improvements on conversational speech are astounding. But, the claims about human-level performance are too broad. Below are a few of the areas that still need improvement.
Accents and Noise
One of the most visible deficiencies in speech recognition is dealing with accents1 and background noise. The straightforward reason is that most of the training data consists of American accented English with high signal-to-noise ratios. For example, the Switchboard conversational training and test sets only have native English speakers (mostly American) with little background noise.
But, more training data likely won’t solve this problem on its own. There are a lot of languages many of which have a lot of dialects and accents. It’s not feasible to collect enough annotated data for all cases. Building a high quality speech recognizer just for American accented English needs upwards of 5 thousand hours of transcribed audio.
With background noise, it’s not uncommon for the SNR in a moving car to be as low as -5dB. People don’t have much trouble understanding one another in these environments. Speech recognizers, on the other hand, degrade more rapidly with noise. In the figure above we see the gap between the human and the model error rates increase dramatically from the low SNR to the high SNR audio.
Often the word error rate is not the actual objective in a speech recognition system. What we care about is the semantic error rate. That’s the fraction of utterances in which we misinterpret the meaning.
An example of a semantic error is if someone said “let’s meet up Tuesday” but the speech recognizer predicted “let’s meet up today”. We can also have word errors without semantic errors. If the speech recognizer dropped the “up” and predicted “let’s meet Tuesday” the semantics of the utterance are unchanged.
We have to be careful when using the word error rate as a proxy. Let me give a worst-case example to show why. A WER of 5% roughly corresponds to 1 missed word for every 20. If each sentence has 20 words (about average for English), the sentence error rate could be as high as 100%. Hopefully the mistaken words don’t change the semantic meaning of the sentences. Otherwise the recognizer could misinterpret every sentence even with a 5% WER.
When comparing models to humans, it’s important to check the nature of the mistakes and not just look at the WER as a conclusive number. In my own experience, human transcribers tend to make fewer and less drastic semantic errors than speech recognizers.
Researchers at Microsoft recently compared mistakes made by humans and their human-level speech recognizer.3 One discrepancy they found was that the model confuses “uh” with “uh huh” much more frequently than humans. The two terms have very different semantics: “uh” is just filler whereas “uh huh” is a backchannel acknowledgement. The model and humans also made a lot of the same types of mistakes.
The Switchboard conversational task is also easier because each speaker is recorded with a separate microphone. There’s no overlap of multiple speakers in the same audio stream. Humans on the other hand can understand multiple speakers sometimes talking at the same time.
A good conversational speech recognizer must be able to segment the audio based on who is speaking (diarisation). It should also be able to make sense of audio with overlapping speakers (source separation). This should be doable without needing a microphone close to the mouth of each speaker, so that conversational speech can work well in arbitrary locations.
Accents and background noise are just two factors a speech recognizer needs to be robust to. Here are a few more:
- Reverberation from varying the acoustic environment.
- Artefacts from the hardware.
- The codec used for the audio and compression artefacts.
- The sample rate.
- The age of the speaker.
Most people wouldn’t even notice the difference between an
mp3 and a plain
wav file. Before we claim human-level performance, speech recognizers need to
be robust to these sources of variability as well.
You’ll notice the human-level error rate on benchmarks like Switchboard is actually quite high. If you were conversing with a friend and they misinterpreted 1 of every 20 words, you’d have a tough time communicating.
One reason for this is that the evaluation is done context-free. In real life we use many other cues to help us understand what someone is saying. Some examples of context that people use but speech recognizers don’t include:
- The history of the conversation and the topic being discussed.
- Visual cues of the person speaking including facial expressions and lip movement.
- Prior knowledge about the person we are speaking with.
Currently, Android’s speech recognizer has knowledge of your contact list so it can recognize your friends’ names.4 The voice search in maps products uses geolocation to narrow down the possible points-of-interest you might be asking to navigate to.5
The accuracy of ASR systems definitely improves when incorporating this type of signal. But, we’ve just begun to scratch the surface on the type of context we can include and how it’s used.
The recent improvements in conversational speech are not deployable. When thinking about what makes a new speech algorithm deployable, it’s helpful to think in terms of latency and compute. The two are related, as algorithms which increase compute tend to increase latency. But for simplicity I’ll discuss each separately.
Latency: With latency, I mean the time from when the user is done speaking to when the transcription is complete. Low latency is a common product constraint in ASR. It can significantly impact the user experience. Latency requirements in the tens of milliseconds aren’t uncommon for ASR systems. While this may sound extreme, remember that producing the transcript is usually the first step in a series of expensive computations. For example in voice search the actual web-scale search has to be done after the speech recognition.
Bidirectional recurrent layers are a good example of a latency killing improvement. All the recent state-of-the-art results in conversational speech use them. The problem is we can’t compute anything after the first bidirectional layer until the user is done speaking. So the latency scales with the length of the utterance.
A good way to efficiently incorporate future information in speech recognition is still an open problem.
Compute: The amount of computational power needed to transcribe an utterance is an economic constraint. We have to consider the bang-for-buck of every accuracy improvement to a speech recognizer. If an improvement doesn’t meet an economical threshold, then it can’t be deployed.
A classic example of a consistent improvement that never gets deployed is an ensemble. The 1% or 2% error reduction is rarely worth the 2-8x increase in compute. Modern RNN language models are also usually in this category since they are very expensive to use in a beam search; though I expect this will change in the future.
As a caveat, I’m not suggesting research which improves accuracy at great computational cost isn’t useful. We’ve seen the pattern of “first slow but accurate, then fast” work well before. The point is just that until an improvement is sufficiently fast, it’s not usable.
The Next Five Years
There are still many open and challenging problems in speech recognition. These include:
- Broadening the capabilities to new domains, accents and far-field, low SNR speech.
- Incorporating more context into the recognition process.
- Diarisation and source-separation.
- Semantic error rates and innovative methods for evaluating recognizers.
- Super low-latency and efficient inference.
I look forward to the next five years of progress on these and other fronts.
Thanks to @mrhannun for useful feedback and edits.
Hacker News discussion.